Welcome to Attic Inscriptions Online (AIO), a website which publishes the inscriptions of ancient Athens and Attica in English translation.

Background

Inscriptions on stone are the most important documentary source for the history of the ancient city of Athens and its surrounding region, Attica. Dating from the 7th century BC through to the end of antiquity, Greek texts are available to scholars in Inscriptiones Graecae (IG) I (up to 403/2 BC) and II (after 403/2 BC) (website), updated annually by the Supplementum Epigraphicum Graecum (SEG) (website) (access by subscription), and in the Packard Humanities Institute (PHI) Greek Inscriptions website. However, before the launch of AIO, very few of the inscriptions were available in English translation, whether in print, or online.

Use of the site

The translations include, as a minimum, an indication of the text translated, the name of the translator and key references and metadata. Further information about the inscriptions, including historical notes, is being gradually added.

There are now a number of routes to finding a translation that you might be interested in. If you have a source reference to one of the standard publications, such as IG, you can get directly to the translation by entering the reference in the reference lookup box in the top right-hand corner of this Home page. A fuller selection of source references can be traced via the browse page. Click on the relevant publication, and in the next screen, click on the inscription required. Via the menu in the upper right corner of the main browse page it is now possible also to browse translations by present location of the inscription, by publication date on AIO, by monument type and inscription type. Please note that, if you search by an outdated reference (e.g. an old edition of IG) you will always be led to a translation of the most up-to-date Greek text.

It is also possible to search the inscriptions by text content.

Translations are based on the most recent, authoritative Greek text, the reference to which is given above the translation. Other key textual sources and collections commonly used as references are listed in the sidebar. Where the translation is based partly on a different text from the "translated text" this is indicated by line numbers in brackets after the relevant reference in the sidebar. For example, with the decree honouring Eurykleides of Kephisia, the text translated is IG II3 1 1160, but varies from that text in line 16 in a way explained in AIO Papers 4. Hence the reference in the sidebar: "AIO Papers 4, 1160 (l. 16)".

In the sidebar IG references are listed first, in chronological order, then SEG references (which are normally used in preference to references to individual books or articles), then other references in chronological order. AIO does not aim to supply full historical bibliographies, but some references to key historical bibliography are given in the sidenotes.

The translations have been arranged so that, as far as possible, clauses are allocated the same line numbers as their equivalents in the original Greek text. Please bear in mind, however, that specific words in a translation will not always be found in the same line as in the Greek text.

[ ] enclose translation of text which is not preserved on the stone and is restored with a degree of uncertainty. Where text is formulaic, and can be restored with confidence, [ ] are not used. Bear in mind also that [ ] are approximate indicators, e.g. they do not usually give a precise indication of words that are only partly preserved. Users interested in the precise extent of restorations should always refer to the Greek text.

<> indicate text which was apparently omitted in error, or inscribed incorrectly, by the stone-cutter.

() in the translation are sometimes used to complete words that are abbreviated in the original Greek.

[[ ]] enclose words that have been erased or inscribed in an erasure.

Transliterations are supplied for words whose meaning is unclear in context, for important Greek concepts and technical terms, words for which there is no precise equivalent in English, and sometimes for words that are only partially preserved. In some repetitive texts, or groups of texts, a transliteration is given only on the first occurrence of a word or phrase. Transliterations can be turned on or off.