Welcome to Attic Inscriptions Online (AIO), a website designed to make available the inscriptions of ancient Athens and Attica in English translation.

Background

Inscriptions on stone are the most important documentary source for the history of the ancient city of Athens and its surrounding region, Attica. Dating from the 7th century BC through to the end of antiquity, Greek texts are available to scholars in Inscriptiones Graecae (IG) I (up to 403/2 BC) and II (after 403/2 BC) (website), updated annually by the Supplementum Epigraphicum Graecum (SEG) (website), and in the Packard Humanities Institute (PHI) Greek Inscriptions website. However, until now, very few of the inscriptions have been available in English translation, whether in print, or online. This site is intended to rectify this situation.

Use of the site

The translations include, as a minimum, an indication of the text translated, the name of the translator and key references. Further information about the inscriptions is being added gradually.

There are currently two ways the inscriptions may be searched, by text content, and by source reference.

To access an inscription by reference go to Browse and click on the work in which you wish to find the reference. In the next screen, click on the inscription required.

The translations have been arranged so that, as far as possible, clauses are allocated the same line numbers as their equivalents in the original Greek text. Please bear in mind, however, that specific words in a translation will not always be found in the same line as in the Greek text.

[ ] indicate translation of text which is not preserved on the stone and is restored with a degree of uncertainty. Where text is formulaic, and can be restored with confidence, [ ] are not used. Bear in mind also that [ ] are approximate indicators, e.g. they do not usually give a precise indication of words that are only partly preserved. Users interested in the precise extent of restorations should always refer to the Greek text.

<> indicate text which was apparently omitted in error by the stone-cutter.

() in the translation are sometimes used to complete words that are abbreviated in the original Greek.

Transliterations are supplied for words whose meaning is unclear in context, for important Greek concepts and technical terms and words for which there is no precise equivalent in English. In some repetitive texts a transliteration is given only on the first occurrence of a word or phrase. Transliterations can be turned on or off.